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  • ItemOpen Access
    Characterization and Modeling Using Non-Destructive Test (NDT) and Experimental Design Methods of a Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) Based on Mineral Additions
    (2022) Ibtissem Allali; Larbi Belagraa; Miloud Beddar; Oussama Kessal
    The formulation of an innovative concrete that meets the requirements of a self compacting concrete (SCC), with acceptable performance in terms of rheology in the fresh state; good fluidity, ease of placing, without segregation as well as good mechanical strength and durability at hardened state has become of great research interest for the last decades. Numerous studies have shown the favorable effects of limestone fillers on the SCC properties. This study aims at investigating the effect of inert mineral addition of limestone fillers with dosages of 10% and 20% grinded to different fine nesses 2000, 3000 and 4000 cm2 /g on the physico-mechanical properties of a fresh self-placing concrete using slump, the L-box and the sieve stability tests. Also, the means of destructive and non-destructive tests (NDT) methods to the assessment of the mechanical performances of SCC at hardened state were used. The use of experiment factorial design method allows us to have behavior laws to predict the mechanical strength response when combined with (NDT) according to a numerical model in such study. Hence, a numerical modeling of mechanical response could be derived by such statistical analysis in regards to the effects of factors and their interaction. The results obtained showed that the incorporation of limestone filler in the composition of the SCC improves the fluidity with limited segregation, as well as the good mechanical performances (resistance to compression and flexion). The numerical modeling of the predicted compressive strength response, in particular at the age of 28 days, is judged to be with an acceptable determined coefficient R2 equal to 0.994.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effect of Curing Temperature in the Alkali-Activated Brick Waste and Glass Powder mortar and Their Influence of Mechanical resistances
    (2020) Imen Yamina Omri; Nadia Tebbal; Zine El Abidine Rahmouni
    In this study, compressive strength values were measured at different curing times (7, 14 and 28 days).The alkali-activation of the brick and glass powder body with potassium water glass having the silicate modulus of 3. Compressive strengths, flexural strength and specific fracture energy of the specimens stored at 40° C and 60° C are evaluated at 28-days. The study demonstrates that the storage temperature of specimens and the content of the alkaline solution have a significant influence on all mechanical properties of the studied materials.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Behavior of Cementitious Materials under the Effect of an Eco-Cement Based on Dredged Sludge
    (Université de M'sila, 2022) Riad Ali Halassa; Mekki Bibi; Mohamed-Aziz Chikouche
    This paper attempts to simulate the use of green materials from the silt in a dam, and reduce the harmful impacts of siltation on Algerian dams affected by frequent droughts and irregular rainfalls, which are resulted from climate change. These harsh weather conditions are the main cause of water erosion in Algeria, leading to a high silting level in many dams across the country. Therefore, it is necessary to dredge the considerable volumes of sludge in the dam areas. This paper treats the sludge dredged from the K’sob dam, and adds the treated sludge into cement, creating a hybrid binder that can be used in composition of cementitious materials. Specifically, the sludge extracted from the K’sob dam was characterized chemically, physically, mineralogically, and mechanically, and introduced both as a substitute of cement and a component in the mixture of ordinary concrete/mortar. The sludge was firstly activated through calcination, and added to cement at the mass dosages of 10%, 15%, and 20% separately. The mechanical behavior, especially that under compression, of cementitious materials (concrete/mortar) based on the treated sludge was studied through lab tests. The test results show that this technical innovation gives the finished product three major properties, namely, high strength, economy, and a beneficial ecological impact. The results obtained are encouraging and promise an optimal exploitation of the sludge from similar dam areas.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Predictive Modeling and Multi‑response Optimization of Physical and Mechanical Properties of SCC Based on Sand’s Particle Size Distribution
    (Université de M'sila, 2020-07) Zied, Benghazi
    Abstract This paper focuses on the modeling and optimization of the physical and mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC), prepared using the modified packing model design, taking into consideration sand’s particle size distribution (PSD) and fineness modulus (FM). The optimization is predicated using the response surface methodology. The analysis of variance is exploited to determine the statistical significance of the PSD on the studied properties of SCC. For that, we studied twentyfour SCC mixtures, using three kinds of sands with different FM and particle shapes: dune sand, river sand, and crushed sand. The results show that PSD properties of used sand, despite its shape, are good predictors for SCC fresh properties, but less predictive for compressive strength. The multi-response optimization allowed the estimation of sand’s PSD parameters that give the optimal physical and mechanical properties of SCC, with an overall desirability of 0.923.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Experimental study on the effect of hot climate on the performance of roller‑compacted concrete pavement
    (Université de M'sila, 2019-10) Moussa, Deghfel
    The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of hot climate on the performance of roller-compacted concrete which is used for pavement. Mixes were placed in different environments in order to simulate the local climate conditions. Largescale test has been carried out to assess the mechanical strength development in function of curing mode, temperature treatment and silica fume addition. Compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, shrinkage and capillary absorption of water were evaluated according to the program tests. The main results showed that an increase in temperature (over 40°) affects negatively the physical and mechanical properties due to malformation of hydration products, while cure methods showed a higher efficiency of the improvement in such properties. However, it should be noted that the wet cure method gave the best results as it provides appropriate and effective conditions to the hydration process. Regarding the effect of silica fume addition, even an improvement in the compressive strength was confirmed; however, it has a negative impact on the shrinkage.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The Study of Slag Cement’s Microstructural Properties
    (Université de M'sila, 2021) Saida Boualleg
    The objective of this work is the quantification of hydration in cement. To monitor this quantity of hydrated cement "hydration degrees" we adopted the method of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) which allowed us to determine the degree of hydration α(t), bound water (WB) and non-evaporable water. This study is completed by the analysis of diffractometers (DRX). Cements containing different percentages of slag. The evolution of the kinetics was studied during 3, 7 and 28 days. According to the results obtained, the hydration rate is inversely proportional to the addition content in the cement. The degree of hydration is directly related to the formation of hydrates and portlandite, more non-evaporable water retained in the hydrates corresponds to a high degree of hydration. This technique is coupled with the carbonation and strength of ordinary mortar. The experimental data obtained have been correlated and interpreted with regard to the evolution of strength and carbonation as a function of the degree of hydration, bound water and non-evaporable water of the cement hydrates. The Bhatty method is verified for the calculation of the degree of hydration and can be successfully applied for composite cements.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Improvement of rheological properties of Algeria crude oil by addition of extra-light crude oil and a surfactant agent
    (Université de M'sila, 2021) Djemiat Djamal Eddine; Abdelhamid Safri; Abdelbaki Benmounah
    Effect of surfactant and extra-light crude oil addition on the rheological behaviors of an Algeria crude oil in order to improving its flowability were studied at low temperature. These rheological properties include steady flow behavior, yield stress and viscoelastic behavior. An AR-2000 rheometer was employed in all of the rheological examination tests. Results show that Toluene and extra-light crude oil addition causes a strong reduction in viscosity, the yield stress and can effectively increase of crude oil transport capacity. The toluene addition gets its best flow capacity and lowest viscosity at 6%. The extra-light crude oil addition obtains its best flow capacity and lowest viscosity at 50%. The viscoelasticity character of the crude oil has indicate a significantly influence by the addition of Toluene and extra-light crude oil.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Algerian seismic code improvement by proposition of a specific design spectrum for Algiers City
    (Université de M'sila, 2020) Ibrahim Berra; Abderrachid Boulaouad
    This paper is an involvement in the improvement of the Algerian seismic regulation (RPA) which presents many deficiencies. Investigations are focused on the so-called “spectral modal analysis” (SMA) method commonly used for seismic evaluation. The applications are made on reinforced concrete structures in both cases: self-steady frames and structures with shear walls (bearing walls). Furthermore, comparison is made with time history (TH) method based on a number of recent Algerian seismic records. This work led to the proposition of a more accurate design spectrum specific to Algiers City usable in the classical (force) method as well as in a simplified “performance-based” method.
  • ItemOpen Access
    (Université de M'sila, 2017-05) Ouzandja, Djamel
    This paper aims to present the three-dimensional nonlinear seismic response of concrete gravity dams considering contact elements at dam-reservoir interaction interface. Dam-reservoir contact interface is modeled with three-dimensional surface-to-surface contact elements based on the Coulomb’s friction. A numerical investigation of the effect of hydrodynamic interaction and sliding of the water along the dam-reservoir interface is performed. The maximum horizontal displacements and principal stresses in the different sections of the dam are presented as well as seismic behavior of dam is examined in empty and full reservoir cases. Besides, the damage placements in the concrete dam are evaluated.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Laboratory investigation on the behaviour of an overconsolidated expansive clay in intact and compacted states
    (Université de M'sila, 2017-12) Mekki, Lakhdar
    Natural climatic phenomena and human activity frequently cause disorders in the masses of fine-grained soils characterized by very significant volume variation as soon as the conditions of their equilibrium are modified. A better description of the behaviour of fine-grained soils can be seen with respect to dryingwetting cycles. This paper presents a series of laboratory test results obtained on a heavily overconsolidated expansive clay, for which significant damages frequently appear in road and motorway infrastructures, in urban public utilities, as well as in civil and industrial low-rise structures. The effects of compaction and drying-wetting cycles on the mechanical parameters of this clay are analyzed to establish a predictive model of the soil movement following the in-situ water table variation. Comparative analysis between the deformability and strength characteristics of the clay in intact and compacted states are then presented. Tests results show that the values of the geotechnical parameters derived from these tests are depending on some experimental aspects such as the compaction energy, drying time, initial deformability and soil saturation. In all cases, the behaviour of intact and compacted clay samples is governed by the same laws of compressibility and consolidation, shrinkage and swelling as well as shear and failure.
  • ItemOpen Access
    (Université de M'sila, 2018-08-22) Zitouni, Salim; Naceri, Abdelghani; Maza, MEKKI
    The effects of clay and limestone dusts in the aggregates on the physico - mechanical characteristics of concrete were investigated. The fine aggregates (dune sand) and coarse aggregates (crushed gravels) used in this study were washed, dried and sieved.Two different mineralogical compositions of dusts (clay and stone) were incorporated in different rates(0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30%) by replacementin weight of fine (dune sand) and coarse (crushed gravel) aggregates. The presence of clay and limestone dust particles in the fine and coarse aggregates in excessive quantities influenced the physico – mechanical properties of fresh and hardened concrete. The results obtained showed that the effect of clay dust content is more important compared to limestone dust content on the properties of concrete.
  • ItemOpen Access
    (Université de M'sila, 2018-09-30) Mekki, Maza; Abdelghani, Naceri; Zitouni, Salima
    Demand for aggregates is growing considerably in line with the development of construction in Algeria. To overcome it, it will be necessary to ensure a rational exploitation of the aggregates available to the country by aevaluation of the existing resources. According to the statistics, the glass wastes accounted for 7% of the world’s solid wastes. The glass wastes can be used in concrete production in two forms: replacing part of aggregate or using as supplementary cement material to replace cement. Using glass wastes to produce recycled aggregates for the production of new concrete reduces the consumption of natural resources as well as landfills. This work consists in formulating a micro-concrete with a substitution of 5 to 25% by weight of crushed calcareous aggregates of fraction 3/8 by glass aggregates of the same fraction 3/8. The incorporation of glass wastes as an aggregate in the micro-concrete plays a role of skeleton and improves its compressive mechanical strength. The compressive strength is considerably improved by substitution of crushed calcareous aggregates by recycled glass aggregates. The optimum has been reached for a value of around 46 MPa for a substitution of 10% of crushed limestone aggregates. The substitution of 10% crushed gravel by crushed glass allows improving the strength of more than 27%. The results obtained proved that waste glass can be used as an aggregate for producing micro-concrete with a relatively high strength which will not deteriorate with time.
  • ItemOpen Access
    (Université de M'sila, 2017-09-08) TEBBAL, Nadia; RAHMOUNI, Zine El Abidine; MAZA, MEKKI
    This study examines the effect of the additions of silica fume and super plasticizer on the mechanical performance of high performance concretes at high temperatures. The tested concretes are formulated with 5% silica fume and two dosages of super plasticizers in the ratio of (2%, 2.5%) the weight of cement after having been exposed to four maximum temperatures, 200 °C, 400 °C, 600 °C and 900 °C without any imposed load during the heating. The results obtained show that the mechanical resistance at 28 day increases with the degree of temperature compared to that measured at 20 °C. On the contrary, a clear decrease is observed between 600 °C and 900 °C. However, material composition seems to have great influence on the mechanical strength.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Optimization of the SO3 content of an Algerian Portland cement: Study on the effect of various amounts of gypsum on cement properties
    (Université de M'sila, 2017-12-18) Siline, Mohammeda; Safiullah, Omary
    Portland cement CEM I is obtained from (95–97%) of clinker and (3–5%) of gypsum, according to EN 197-1 (2011) standard. Sulfur trioxide SO3 is the main component of gypsum (Calcium Sulfate Dihydrate CaSO4 2H2O), it may also originate from clinker, the previous standard has limited its content in cement at 4%. It is known that the gypsum acts as a cement setting regulator, however, an appropriate gypsum quantity (optimum) may improve other properties such as: mechanical response, dimensional variations and hydration process. This optimum gypsum content is related to several parameters, namely: SO3 %, cement SSB (specific surface Blaine), C3A % and alkali %. The aim of this work is to find, through an experimental protocol, the optimum gypsum content of an Algerian Portland cement CEM I. 10 variants containing various % of gypsum were formulated, where properties of anhydrous cements, cement pastes and normalized cement mortars were studied. Results show that when gypsum is added below or above the optimum, water demand for normal consistency, setting times, compressive strength, heat of hydration, swelling, drying shrinkage and hydration degree were adversely affected. It has been experimentally demonstrated that this optimum gypsum content is 5.5% by weight.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Shear Strength of an Expansive Overconsolidated Clay Treated with Hydraulic Binders
    (Université de M'sila, 2017-12-04) Mahamedi, Abd elkrim
    This paper presents and analyzes the results of a series of identification; compaction and direct shear tests performed in accordance with the Algerian standards on expansive overconsolidated clay treated with locally manufactured hydraulic binders (composed Portland cement and extinct lime). This clay comes from the urban site of Sidi-Hadjrès city (wilaya of M'sila, Algeria), where significant damages frequently appear in the road infrastructures, roadway systems and various networks and in civil and industrial light structures. Tests results show that the geotechnical parameters deduced from these tests are concordant and confirm the shear strength improvement of this natural clay treated with cement or lime and compacted under the optimum Proctor conditions. However, contrary to its mineralogical characteristics which do not seem to be affected by the treatment, this expansive natural clay is characterized by as well drained as undrained shear strength sensitive to stabilizer content; the best performances are obtained for a treatment corresponding to 8% cement or lime content Cet article présente et analyse les résultats d'une série d'identifications; essais de compactage et de cisaillement direct effectués selon les normes algériennes sur une argile expansive surconsolidée traitée aux liants hydrauliques fabriqués localement (ciment Portland composé et chaux éteinte). Cette argile provient du site urbain de la ville de Sidi-Hadjrès (wilaya de M'sila, Algérie), où des dégâts importants apparaissent fréquemment dans les infrastructures routières, voiries et réseaux divers, ainsi que dans les constructions légères civiles et industrielles. Les résultats d’essais obtenus montrent que les valeurs des paramètres géotechniques déduits de ces essais sont concordantes et confirment l'amélioration de la résistance au cisaillement de cette argile naturelle traitée au ciment ou à la chaux et compactée dans les conditions Proctor optimales. Cependant, contrairement à ses caractéristiques minéralogiques qui ne semblent pas affectées par le traitement, cette argile naturelle expansive est caractérisée par une résistance au cisaillement aussi drainée que non drainée sensible à la teneur en stabilisant; les meilleures performances
  • ItemOpen Access
    Feasibility of using rubber waste fibers as reinforcements for sandy soils
    (Université de M'sila, 2017) Meddah, Abdelaziz; Merzoug, Karima
    In this study, an alternative and environmentally friendly method for the reinforcement of dune sand is proposed. This technique consists of using randomly distributed rubber fibers to improve the engineering properties of sand. Rubber fibers are added to the sand with different percentages: 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75 and 2% of dry weight of sand. The experimental program carried out consists of investigating the effect of rubber fibers on the shear strength properties of sand. Reinforced and unreinforced samples are tested in the dense as well as loose state. The results obtained showed that the inclusion of rubber fibers in dune sand will improve the engineering properties of various civil engineering applications such as shallow foundations and slope. Therefore, incorporation of rubber fibers can enhance the shear strength characteristics, peak and residual strengths, and introduce more ductility to the mechanical behavior of sand. In addition to the technical effect, this paper emphasizes another environmentally attractive option, which is the use of rubber fibers as reinforcements for granular soils as this helps to remove some parts of these wastes and protect the environment.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Recherche Bibliographique Sur La Valorisation De Métakaolin Dans Les Matériaux De Construction
    (Université Mohamed Boudiaf - M’sila, 2016) Belmenaouar, Samir
    Metakaolin is a synthetic pozzolan commonly used in the field of civil engineering. The metakaolin is the result of calcining kaolinite. It is economically advantageous to use metakaolin in substitution of part of the cement. This work concerns a bibliographic research on the thermal behavior of kaolinite, notably dehydration and dehydroxylation. The literature is full of studies to draw the great benefits that provides this substitution. This material was the subject of much research is a European standard NF P 18 513. The pozzolanic activity can be determined by quantifying hydroxide Calcium consumed by metakaolins. In this work we describe in general the different methods of assessing the pouzolanicité.